Chipangizo chachipatala ndi chida chilichonse chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pazachipatala. Chifukwa chake chomwe chimasiyanitsa chachipangizo chamankhwala ndi chida cha tsiku ndi tsiku ndi momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito. Zipangizo zamankhwala zimapindulitsa odwala pothandizira othandizira odwala azachipatala kudziwa ndi kuchiza odwala komanso kuthandiza odwala kuthana ndi matenda kapena matenda, kukonza moyo wawo. Kuthekera kwakukulu kwa zoopsa ndizachilengedwe mukagwiritsa ntchito chipangizochi chifukwa chake zida zamankhwala ziyenera kutsimikiziridwa kuti zimakhala zotetezeka komanso zogwira ntchito molimbika musanakhazikitse maboma kuloleza kugulitsa chipangizochi m'dziko lawo. Monga lamulo wamba, monga chiwopsezo chogwirizana ndi chipangizocho chikuchulukitsa kuyesa kofunikira kuti kukhazikike chitetezo ndikuwonjezereka kumakulanso. Kuphatikiza apo, monga chiopsezo chokhudzana ndi chiwonjezerocho chikuwonjezera phindu kwa wodwalayo ayeneranso kuchuluka.

Kupeza zomwe zingaoneke ngati zachipatala malinga ndi masiku amakono kunayamba kale c. 7000 BC ku Baluchistan komwe madokotala a mano a Neolithic amagwiritsa ntchito zoboolera zopota mwala ndi zingwe. [1] Kafukufuku wamabwinja ndi zolemba zachipatala zaku Roma zikuwonetsanso kuti mitundu yambiri yazida zamankhwala idkagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi ya Roma wakale. [2] Ku United States mpaka mu Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD & C Act) mu 1938 zida zamankhwala zidalamulidwa. Pambuyo pake mu 1976, Medical Device Amendments ku FD & C Act idakhazikitsa malamulo azida zamankhwala ndikuyang'anira monga tikudziwira lero ku United States. [3] Malamulo azida zamankhwala ku Europe monga tikudziwira lero adayamba kugwira ntchito mu 1993 ndi zomwe zimadziwika kuti Medical Device Directive (MDD). Pa Meyi 26, 2017 Medical Device Regulation (MDR) idalowa m'malo mwa MDD.

Zipangizo zamankhwala zimasiyana m'njira zomwe amagwiritsa ntchito ndikuwonetsa momwe angagwiritsire ntchito. Zitsanzo zimachokera ku zida zosavuta, zotsika mtengo monga kufooketsa lilime, ma thermometers azachipatala, magolovesi otayika, ndi zofunda zamagetsi, zida zowopsa zomwe zimayikidwa ndikuthandizira moyo. Chitsanzo chimodzi cha zida zomwe zimakhala pachiwopsezo chachikulu ndi zomwe zili ndi Mapulogalamu Olumikizidwa monga ma pacemaker, ndipo amathandizira poyeserera kuchipatala, kumadzala, ndi mahule. Zinthu zokhala zovuta kuzimangira monga cochlear zokutira zimapangidwa kudzera munjira zakuya komanso zozama zosakoka. Mapangidwe azida zamankhwala amapanga gawo lalikulu la gawo la zida zopanga zinthu zazida.

Msika wazida zamankhwala padziko lonse lapansi udafika pafupifupi $ 209 biliyoni mu 2006 [4] ndipo akuti ukhala pakati $ $ 220 ndi US $ 250 biliyoni mu 2013. [5] United States imayendetsa ~ 40% ya msika wapadziko lonse wotsatiridwa ndi Europe (25%), Japan (15%), ndi mayiko ena onse (20%). Ngakhale konse ku Europe kuli gawo lalikulu, Japan ili ndi gawo lachiwiri lalikulu pamsika. Msika waukulu kwambiri ku Europe (munthawi yamagawo kukula) ndi a Germany, Italy, France, ndi United Kingdom. Dziko lonse lapansi lili ndi zigawo monga (mosatengera) Australia, Canada, China, India, ndi Iran. Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza zomwe zimapanga chida chachipatala m'magawo osiyanasiyana ndipo muzolemba izi zigawo zonse zidzafotokozedwa mogwirizana ndi msika wawo padziko lonse lapansi.

Kuwonetsa zotsatira zonse 12

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