KUMVA AIDS

Zothandizira kumva ndi ma amplifiers ang'onoang'ono, ogwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ma batri ovala khutu. Maikolofoni ang'onoang'ono amagwiritsidwa ntchito kunyamula mawu m'chilengedwe. Phokoso limamvekedwa kwambiri kuti wogwiritsa ntchito amve mawu awa bwino. Zothandizira kumva osabwezeretsa kumva kwanu kukhala kwachizolowezi. Samateteza kuwonongeka kwachilengedwe, kapena kuyambitsa kuwonongeka kwina pakumva. Komabe, zothandizira kumva nthawi zambiri kumathandizira kuti munthu azitha kuyankhulana tsiku lililonse.

Akuluakulu Audiology imapereka njira ziwiri zothandizira zothandizira kumva: ukadaulo wapamwamba m'njira yolumikizira komanso mtundu wolowera mosadukiza. Ukadaulo wapamwamba umakhala ndi njira zochulukitsira, ma multichannel okhazikika-okhazikika komanso ochepetsa phokoso, ndikuwongolera komwe kungasinthidwe, komanso njira zamagetsi zotsitsika ndi Bluetooth. Zothandizirazi zimaperekedwa ndi chitsimikizo cha zaka 2 mpaka 3 ndipo maulendo onse amaofesi ndi ntchito zimaphatikizidwa pamtengo. Mtundu wolowera uli ndi njira zochepetsera zochepa, kuchepetsa phokoso, komanso kuwongolera. Zothandizira pakumva izi zimaperekedwa ndi chitsimikizo cha chaka chimodzi ndipo maulendo oyendera ofesi pambuyo pake ndi ntchito siziphatikizidwa pamtengo. Mtengo wake ndi wotsika kwambiri komanso wotsika mtengo. Njira yabwino kwambiri yothandizira kuthandizira kumva imagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi njira zonse zothandizira.

Kodi chothandizira kumva ndi chiyani?

Chothandizira kumva ndi kachipangizo kakang'ono kamagetsi kamene mumavala kumbuyo kapena khutu lanu. Zimamveketsa mawu kwambiri kuti munthu yemwe ali ndi vuto lakumva azimvetsera, kulumikizana, komanso kutenga nawo mbali kwambiri pazochitika za tsiku ndi tsiku. Chithandizo chakumva chitha kuthandiza anthu kumva zambiri m'malo abata komanso achilengedwe. Komabe, ndi munthu m'modzi yekha mwa anthu asanu omwe angapindule ndi thandizo lakumva yemwe amagwiritsa ntchito imodzi.

Chithandizo chothandizira kumvetsera chimakhala ndi magawo atatu ofunikira: maikolofoni, zolimbitsa, ndi wokamba. Chothandizira kumva chimalandira phokoso kudzera pa maikolofoni, yomwe imasinthira mafunde amawu kukhala magetsi amagetsi ndikuwatumiza ku makina othandiza. Wokweza amawonjezera mphamvu ya ma siginolo kenako ndikuwatumiza kumakutu kudzera mwa wokamba.

Kodi zothandizira kumva zimatha bwanji?

Zothandizira kumva ndizothandiza kwambiri pakumvetsetsa kumvetsetsa ndi kuyankhula kwa anthu omwe amamva kutaya komwe kumachitika chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa maselo am'malingaliro am'kati mwa khutu lamkati, lotchedwa maselo a tsitsi. Kutaya kwamtundu wamtunduwu kumatchedwa kuchepa kwa makutu. Zowonongeka zimatha kuchitika chifukwa cha matenda, ukalamba, kapena kuvulala chifukwa cha phokoso kapena mankhwala ena.

Chothandizira kumva chimakulitsa kutulutsa mawu komwe kumalowa m'khutu. Maselo a tsitsi opulumuka amawona mayendedwe akulu ndikuwasintha kukhala ma neural sign omwe amaperekedwa ku ubongo. Kuwonongeka kwakukulu kwa maselo a tsitsi la munthu, kumakhala kochuluka kwambiri kuti amve, ndi kukulitsa chidwi chothandizira kumva. Komabe, pali malire omwe angakwaniritse kuchuluka kwa zomwe amathandizidwe akumva. Kuphatikiza apo, ngati khutu lamkati likuwonongeka kwambiri, ngakhale mitundu yayikulu isasinthidwe kukhala chizindikiro cha neural. Panthawi imeneyi, thandizo lomvera silingakhale lothandiza.

Kodi ndingadziwe bwanji ngati ndikufuna thandizo?

Ngati mukuganiza kuti mwina muli ndi vuto lakusamva komanso mutha kupindula ndi chithandizo chamakutu, pitani kwa dokotala wanu, yemwe angakutumizireni kwa otolaryngologist kapena audivera. Katswiri wa otolaryngologist ndi dokotala yemwe amagwiritsa ntchito khutu, mphuno komanso khosi ndipo amafufuza zomwe zimapangitsa kuti azimayi azimva. Katswiri wodziwa zaumoyo ndi katswiri wazachipatala yemwe amamva komanso kuzindikira kuwonongeka kwa makutu ndipo amayeza kuyesa kuti amve mtundu ndi kutaya kwake.

Kodi pali magawo osiyanasiyana a zothandizira kumva?

Mitundu ya zothandizira kumva

Mitundu ya zothandizira za 5. Behind-the-Ear (BTE), Mini BTE, In-the-Ear (ITE), In-the-canal (ITC) ndi Kwambiri-mu-canal (CIC)
Source: NIH / NIDCD

  • Kumbuyo-khutu (BTE) zothandizira kumva zimakhala ndi pulasitiki yolimba yokhala kumbuyo kwa khutu ndikualumikizidwa ndi khutu lakapulasitiki lomwe limalowa mkati mwa khutu lakunja. Ziwalo zamagetsi zimasungidwa kumbuyo kwa khutu. Phokoso limayenda kuchokera ku thandizo lothandizira kudzera mmakutu ndikulowetsa khutu. Zothandizira za BTE zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu azaka zonse kupangitsa kuti kusamvekera kwambiri kumva. Mtundu watsopano wa chithandizo cha BTE ndi othandizira omvera omvera. Zida zing'onozing'ono, zotseguka zotsekera khutu kwathunthu, ndi chubu chopapatiza chokhazikitsidwa mu ngalande ya khutu, kupangitsa kuti ngalande ikhale yotseguka. Pachifukwachi, zida zothandizira kumva zitha kukhala chisankho chabwino kwa anthu omwe akumana ndi makina am'makutu, popeza thandizo lamtunduwu silingawonongeke ndi zinthu zotere. Kuphatikiza apo, anthu ena amakonda makutu othandizira kumva chifukwa kuzindikira kwawo kwa mawu sikumveka kuti “kutulutsidwa.”
  • Makutu (ITE) zothandizira kumva zimakwanira mkatikati mwa khutu lakunja ndipo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kufatsa kwenikweni. Mlandu wokhala ndi zida zamagetsi umapangidwa ndi pulasitiki wolimba. Zothandizira zina za ITE zitha kukhala ndi zina zowonjezera zoyikika, monga telecoil. Telecoil ndi coil yamagalasi ochepa yomwe imalola ogwiritsa ntchito kulandira phokoso kudzera m'mayendedwe othandizira akumvera, osati kudzera maikolofoni yake. Izi zimapangitsa kukhala kosavuta kumva kukambirana pafoni. Telecoil imathandizanso anthu kumva m'malo opezeka anthu omwe aika zida zapadera zamagetsi, zotchedwa induction loop system. Njira zopangira zozungulira zitha kupezeka m'matchalitchi ambiri, masukulu, eyapoti ndege, komanso m'malo ochezera. Zothandizira za ITE nthawi zambiri sizimavalidwe ndi ana aang'ono chifukwa zojambulazo zimafunikira kusinthidwa nthawi zambiri khutu likukula.
  • ngalande zothandizira zomwe zimakwanira mu ngalande ya khutu ndipo zimapezeka m'mitundu iwiri. Thandizo lamakutu la ku-the-canal (ITC) limapangidwa kuti likwaniritse kukula ndi mawonekedwe a ngalande ya munthu. Chithandizo chaku-can-canal can (CIC) chokwanira chimakhala chobisala m'katikati mwa khutu. Mitundu yonseyi imagwiritsidwa ntchito kufatsa pang'ono kwamva kumva. Chifukwa ndi yaying'ono, zothandizira canal zimakhala zovuta kuti munthu azisinthe ndikuchotsa. Kuphatikiza apo, zothandizira canal zimakhala ndi malo ocheperako omwe amapezeka mabatire ndi zida zina, monga telecoil. Nthawi zambiri samalimbikitsidwa kwa ana aang'ono kapena kwa anthu omwe ali ndi vuto lalikulu pakumvetsera chifukwa kukula kwawo kumachepetsa mphamvu ndi kuchuluka kwake.

Kodi zothandizira kumva zonse zimagwira ntchito chimodzimodzi?

Zothandizira kumva zimagwira mosiyanasiyana kutengera zamagetsi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mitundu iwiri yayikulu yamagetsi ndi analog komanso digito.

analogi zothandizira zimasintha mafunde amawu kukhala zizimba zamagetsi, zomwe zimakulitsidwa. Zinthu zothandizira kumva za Analog / zosinthika zimapangidwa kuti zigwirizane ndi zosowa za aliyense wogwiritsa ntchito. Thandizo limakonzedwa ndi wopanga malinga ndi zomwe walangizidwa ndi audiologist. Ma analog / pulogalamu yothandizira kumva imakhala ndi pulogalamu yopitilira imodzi kapena makonzedwe. Katswiri wama audiyo amatha kukonza zothandizira kugwiritsa ntchito kompyuta, ndipo mutha kusintha pulogalamuyo kukhala malo omvera osiyanasiyana — kuchokera kuchipinda chocheperako, chochezera mpaka chodyera chodzaza ndi malo akulu, otseguka, monga bwalo la zisudzo kapena sitediyamu. Analog / programmable circry itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu mitundu yonse ya zothandizira kumva. Zothandizira ma analog nthawi zambiri zimakhala zotsika mtengo kuposa zothandizira digito.

Intaneti Zothandizira zimasinthira mafunde amawu kukhala manambala, ofanana ndi nambala yamakina apakompyuta, musanawakweze. Chifukwa nambala yake imaphatikizanso chidziwitso cha kukweza kwa phokoso kapena kukweza, chithandizocho chitha kupangidwanso kuti chithandizire ma frequency ena kuposa ena. Dongosolo la digito limapatsa womvera kusintha kosinthira kwa zosowa za wogwiritsa ntchito komanso malo ena omvera. Izi zothandizanso zimatha kupangidwa kuti zizitha kuganizira kwambiri mawu omwe akuchokera mbali inayake. Digital circry ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu mitundu yonse ya zothandizira kumva.

Kodi ndimalangizo ati omwe angandithandizire?

Thandizo lomvera lomwe lingakugwireni bwino zimadalira mtundu ndi kuwonongeka kwa makutu anu. Ngati mukumva m'makutu anu onse, zothandizira ziwiri zakumvera zimalimbikitsidwa chifukwa zothandizira ziwiri zimapereka chizindikiro chachilengedwe ku ubongo. Kumva m'makutu onsewa kumathandizanso kumvetsetsa kalankhulidwe ndikuwona komwe phokalo likuchokera.

Inu ndi katswiri wa zomvera zanu muyenera kusankha chida chogwirizana ndi zomwe mukufuna ndi moyo wanu. Mtengo ulinso lingaliro lalikulu chifukwa zothandizira kumva zimachokera kumazana mpaka madola masauzande angapo. Zofanana ndi kugula kwazida zina, kalembedwe ndi mawonekedwe zimakhudza mtengo. Komabe, musagwiritse ntchito mtengo wokhawo kuti mupeze njira yabwino kwambiri yothandizira kumva. Chifukwa chakuti chothandizira kumva chimodzi ndiokwera mtengo kuposa china sizitanthauza kuti zikuyenerani bwino zosowa zanu.

Thandizo lomvera silibwezeretsa makutu anu. Ndi kuyeseza, komabe, chothandizira kumva chimakulitsa kuzindikira kwanu kwamawu ndi magwero ake. Mudzafunika kuvala zida zanu zothandizira kumva, choncho sankhani chimodzi chosavuta komanso chosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito. Zinthu zina zofunika kuziganizira zimaphatikizapo magawo kapena ntchito zoperekedwa ndi chitsimikizo, kuwerengetsa kwa ndandanda ndi mtengo wokonza ndi kukonza, zosankha ndi kukweza mwayi, komanso mbiri ya kampani yothandizira kumva chifukwa cha ntchito yabwino ndi kasitomala.

Kodi ndifunse mafunso ati ndisanagule chida chothandizira kumva?

Musanagule chothandizira kumvetsera, funsani omvera anu mafunso ofunikira awa:

  • Ndi ziti zomwe zingakhale zothandiza kwambiri kwa ine?
  • Kodi mtengo wamaphunziro akumva ndi chiyani? Kodi maubwino a matekinoloje atsopano amaposa ndalama zambiri?
  • Kodi pali nthawi yoyeserera zida zothandizira kumva? (Opanga ambiri amalola nthawi yoyeserera ya 30- kwa 60-day panthawi yomwe othandizira amatha kubwezeretsedwanso ndalama.) Ndi zolipira ziti zomwe sizingabwezeredwe ngati zothandizidwa zabwezedwa pambuyo pa nthawi yoyesedwa?
  • Chitsimikizo chakutali ndi chiyani? Kodi ikhoza kupitilizidwa? Kodi chitsimikizochi chimalipira kukonza ndikukonzanso mtsogolo?
  • Kodi owerenga amatha kusintha zomwe zimachitika ndikupereka chiwongolero ndi kukonza zazing'ono? Kodi zothandizidwa ndi ngongole zidzaperekedwa pakafunika kukonza?
  • Kodi owerenga makutu amapereka malangizo otani?

Kodi ndingasinthe bwanji zothandizira kumva?

Zinthu zothandizira kumva zimatenga nthawi komanso kuleza mtima kugwiritsa ntchito bwino. Kuvala zothandizira zanu pafupipafupi kudzakuthandizani kuti muzisinthana nawo.

Msungwana wokhala ndi zokumvera

Dziwani bwino zomwe othandizirana akumva akumva. Pokhala ndi womvera wanu wamawu, phunzirani kuyitanitsa ndi kuthandizapo, kuyeretsa, kuzindikira zothandizira kumanja ndi zamanzere, ndikusintha mabatire. Funsani momwe mungayesere pomvera madera omwe muli ndi vuto la kumva. Phunzirani kusintha kuchuluka kwa thandizo ndi kulipangitsa kuti lizikhala ndi mawu omveka kwambiri kapena ofewa kwambiri. Gwirani ntchito ndi audiologist mpaka mukhale omasuka komanso okhutira.

Mutha kukumana ndi ena mwa mavuto otsatirawa pamene mukusintha kuvala zothandizira zanu zatsopano.

  • Thandizo langa lomva silimva bwino. Anthu ena atha kupeza chovuta kumva. Funsani womvera wanu kuti muzivala nthawi yayitali bwanji mukamamvetsetsa.
  • Mawu anga akumveka kwambiri. Mphamvu ya "plugged-up" yomwe imapangitsa mawu a othandizira kumva kuti amveke mkatikati mwa mutu imatchedwa mphamvu ya occlusion, ndipo ndizofala kwambiri kwa ogwiritsa ntchito akumva atsopano. Yang'anani ndi audiologist wanu kuti muwone ngati kusintha kungatheke. Anthu ambiri amazolowera izi pakapita nthawi.
  • Ndimalandira ndemanga kuchokera ku chothandizira kumva. Kufuula kwamaluwa kumatha kuchitika chifukwa chothandizira kumva chomwe sichikukwana kapena kugwira ntchito bwino kapena chatsekedwa ndi khutu kapena madzimadzi. Onani wowonera wanu wazakusintha.
  • Ndikumva phokoso lakumbuyo. Chithandizo chothandizira kumva sichimalekanitsa kwathunthu phokoso lomwe mukufuna kumva kuchokera kwa omwe simufuna kumva. Nthawi zina, komabe, thandizo la kumvetsera lingafunike kusintha. Lankhulani ndi womvera wanu.
  • Ndikumva foni yanga ndikulira. Anthu ena omwe amavala zothandizira kumva kapena zokhala ndi chida chamakina chovutikira amakumana ndi zovuta ndi kusokonezedwa ndi ma wayilesi pafupipafupi. Zinthu zothandizira kumva komanso foni yam'manja zikuyenda bwino, komabe, mavutowa amachitika kangapo. Mukakhala kuti mupangire chithandizo chatsopano, tengani foni yanu kuti muone ngati zingamuthandizire.

Kodi ndingasamalire bwanji zothandizira kumva?

Kusamalira moyenera ndi chisamaliro kudzakulitsa moyo wanu wamathandizidwe akumva. Khalani ndi chizolowezi:

  • Pitilizani kumva zowonjezera kutali ndi kutentha ndi chinyezi.
  • Zinthu zothandizira kumva bwino monga momwe zalangizidwira. Kukhetsa kwa khutu ndi khutu kumatha kuwononga chothandizira kumva.
  • Pewani kugwiritsa ntchito tsitsi lopangira tsitsi kapena mankhwala ena osamalira tsitsi mutavala zothandizira kumva.
  • Zimitsani zothandizira kumva ngati sizikugwiritsa ntchito.
  • Sinthani mabatire akufa nthawi yomweyo.
  • Sungani mabatire m'malo mwake ndi zothandizira zazing'ono kutali ndi ana ndi ziweto.

Kodi mitundu yatsopano ya zothandizira ilipo?

Ngakhale amagwira ntchito mosiyana ndi zothandizira kumva zomwe tafotokozazi, zida zothandizira kumva zimapangidwa kuti zithandizire kukulitsa kutulutsa kwamtunda kumalowa. Khutu lamkati lamkati (MEI) ndi kachipangizo kakang'ono komwe kamalumikizidwa ndi imodzi ya mafupa a khutu lapakati. M'malo kuwonjezera kukulitsa mawu opita ku eardrum, MEI imayendetsa mafupa mwachindunji. Maluso onsewa ali ndi zotsatira zabwino zolimbitsa kugwedeza kwamkati kulowa mkati mwa khutu kuti athe kuwonedwa ndi anthu omwe ali ndi vuto losamva.

Chipangizo chothandizira kumva (BAHA) ndi chida chaching'ono chomwe chimamangilira fupa kumbuyo kwa khutu. Chipangizocho chimatumiza kugwedeza kwamphamvu molunjika khutu lamkati kudzera mu chigaza, kudutsa khutu lapakati. Ma BAHA nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu omwe ali ndi vuto lakumaso kapena khutu limodzi. Chifukwa opaleshoni amafunika kukhazikitsa chilichonse mwa zidazi, akatswiri ambiri amamva akuona kuti mwina phindu lawo silingakumane ndi zoopsa.

Kodi ndingapeze thandizo la zothandizira kumva?

Zothandizira kumva sizikulandidwa ndi makampani a inshuwaransi yazaumoyo, ngakhale ena amatero. Kwa ana oyenerera ndi akulu akulu azaka za 21 ndi pansi, Medicaid adzalipira kuti azindikire komanso kuchizira matenda osamva, kuphatikiza zothandizira kumva, pansi pa ntchito ya Poyamba ndi Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT). Komanso, ana atha kuphunzitsidwa ndi pulogalamu yakalapansi ya boma lawo kapena Dongosolo la Inshuwaransi ya Ana a Health Insurance.

Medicare simalipira zothandizira kumva kwa akuluakulu; komabe, kuwunika koyesera kumaphimbidwa ngati adalamulidwa ndi adokotala kuti athandizire adokotala kuti apange dongosolo la chithandizo. Popeza Medicare yalengeza kuti BAHA chida chopangira thupi osati chothandizira kumva, Medicare idzaphimba BAHA ngati mfundo zina zobisa zikwaniritsidwa.

Mabungwe ena osachita phindu amapereka ndalama zothandizira zothandizira kumva, pomwe ena atha kuthandiza othandizira kapena okonzanso. Lumikizanani ndi National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorder (NIDCD) Information Clearinghouse ndi mafunso okhudza mabungwe omwe amapereka ndalama zothandizira zothandizira kumva.

Ndi kafukufuku uti yemwe akuchitika pazinthu zothandizira kumva?

Ofufuzawo akuyang'ana njira zomwe angagwiritsire ntchito njira zatsopano zosinthira zikwangwani pakupanga zothandizira kumva. Kusintha kwa siginecha ndiyo njira yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kusintha mafunde amawu kukhala mawu omveka bwino omwe ndi ofanana kwambiri ndi omvera omwe atsala pothandizirayo. Ofufuza omwe amalipidwa ndi NIDCD nawonso akuwerenga momwe zothandizira kumva zingalimbikitsire mawu olankhulira kuti amvetsetse.

Kuphatikiza apo, ofufuza akufufuza za kugwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wothandizidwa ndi makompyuta kuti apange ndikupanga zothandizira kumva. Ofufuzawa akufunanso njira zokulitsira kutulutsa kwa mawu ndikuchepetsa kusokonekera kwa phokoso, mayankho, komanso momwe zinthu zimayendera. Kafukufuku wowonjezera amayang'ana njira zabwino kwambiri zosankhira ana oyenerera kumva ndi ana ndi magulu ena omwe kutha kwawo kumakhala kovuta kuyesa.

Chofunikiranso china chofunikira pakufufuza ndikugwiritsa ntchito zomwe taphunzira kuchokera ku mitundu yazinyama kupanga ma maikolofoni abwinoko othandizira kumva. Asayansi othandizidwa ndi NIDCD akuphunzira za ntchentche yaying'onoyo Ormia ochracea chifukwa khutu lake limalola ntchentche kuzindikira mosavuta phokoso la mawu. Asayansi akugwiritsa ntchito khutu la ntchentcheyo ngati chitsanzo pakupanga maikolofoni ang'onoang'ono othandiza kuti amve. Maikolofoni awa amakweza mawu kuchokera mbali inayake (nthawi zambiri njira yomwe munthu akuyang'ana), koma osati mawu omwe amachokera mbali zina. Ma microphone otsogolera amakhala ndi lonjezo lalikulu lothandiza kuti anthu azimva kukambirana kamodzi, ngakhale atazunguliridwa ndi phokoso ndi mawu ena.

Kodi ndingapeze kuti zambiri zowonjezera pazothandizira kumva?

NIDCD imasunga a chikwatu cha mabungwe zomwe zimapereka chidziwitso pamagulu abwinobwino komanso osokonezeka pakumva, kuyeza, kulawa, kununkhiza, mawu, chilankhulo, ndi chilankhulo.

Gwiritsani ntchito mawu osakira otsatirawa kukuthandizani kupeza mabungwe omwe angayankhe mafunso ndikudziwitseni zothandizira kumva:

Werengani zambiri:

Zomwe mungasankhe pakukumvera Zipangizo

Kuyerekeza Gome la Njira Zomvera Zomvera

Zothandizira kumva zimapezeka mumitundu yambiri komanso mitundu yambiri. Kuti mumve zambiri pazothandizira zothandizira kumva komanso ntchito yothandizira kumva ku Washington University, dinani izi kulumikizana.

Mitengo Yothandizira Kumva

Zambiri za Hearing Aid Technology

Zomwe Mungayembekezere Kumvera Kwanga Kukwanira

Zomwe Mungayembekezere Kuchokera Kumamva Anga

Mitengo ndi Thandizo la Zachuma

Kumva Thandizo la Kusamalira ndi kukonza